Useful Management Information

  • If you have a reason to suspect a child in Queensland is experiencing harm, or is at risk of experiencing harm, you need to contact Child Safety Services
  • Sudden onset incontinence who have previously been dry can be a marker of serious pathologies (e.g. DM, GU tumours, spinal cord problems) and should be assessed urgently
  • In the majority of cases it is thought inappropriate for children to wait more than 6 months for an outpatient initial appointment

Minimum Referral Criteria

Does your patient meet the minimum referral criteria?
Category 1 (appointment within 30 calendar days)
  • Poor urinary stream in a boy
  • New onset of daytime urinary incontinence in a previously dry child
Category 2 (appointment within 90 calendar days)
  • Primary daytime incontinence

Refer to general paediatrics if there are no structural abnormalities

Refer to paediatric urology or paediatric surgery if concerned with renal or structural abnormalities

Category 3 (appointment within 365 calendar days)
  • Nocturnal enuresis without significant daytime incontinence and unresponsive to medical management
  • Children with long term (> 6 months) daytime urinary incontinence who have had previous specialist assessment

Refer to general paediatrics if there are no structural abnormalities.

Refer to paediatric urology or paediatric surgery if concerned with renal or structural abnormalities.

If your patient does not meet the minimum referral criteria

  • Assessment and management information may be found on a range of conditions at HealthPathways
  • If the patient does not meet the criteria for referral but the referring practitioner believes the patient requires specialist review, a clinical override may be requested:
    • Please explain why (e.g. warning signs or symptoms, clinical modifiers, uncertain about diagnosis, etc.)
  • Please note that your referral may not be accepted or may be redirected to another service

Essential Referral Information

  • Is there daytime incontinence of urine?
  • Is there nocturnal enuresis?
  • Report presence or absence of concerning features
    • poor urinary stream in a boy
  • Physical examination, including abdominal examination, spine and lower limbs
  • Urinalysis (dipstick)
  • Fingerpick blood glucose if recent onset of symptoms

Additional Referral Information

Highly desirable information – may change triage category

  • What is the impact on the child? (teasing or social exclusion at school, family conflict over wetting, anxiety or distress about incontinence)
  • Description of the pattern incontinence:
    • is there daytime incontinence? How frequent is the incontinence? Is the incontinence new?
    • primary or secondary (>6 months dryness previously)
  • What treatments have been tried and efficacy

Desirable information - will assist at consultation

  • Family history of nocturnal enuresis or daytime urinary symptoms
  • Diet history
  • Bowel habit history or history of constipation
  • Treatments used for constipation if present
  • Developmental history
  • Other past medical history
  • Immunisation history
  • Medication history
  • Significant psychosocial risk factors (especially parents mental health, family violence, housing and financial stress, department of child safety involvement)
  • Height/weight/head circumference and growth charts with prior measurements if available
  • Other physical examination findings inclusive of CNS, birth marks or dysmorphology
  • Any relevant laboratory results or medical imaging reports, urinalysis results
  • Consider renal tract USS with pre and post void volumes if there is daytime incontinence. Not required for isolated nocturnal enuresis.
Last updated 25 October 2021

Send Referrals To

Smart Referrals

Preferred Method
About Smart Referrals

Secure Web Transfer

Send to: Gold Coast Health Service District

Internal Referrals

Paediatric Medicine (E-Blueslips)


(07) 5687 4497


Paediatric Referral Centre
Gold Coast University Hospital
1 Hospital Boulevard
Southport QLD 4215


1300 744 284

Related HealthPathways

No directly related pathways found

Service Availability

Dr Susan Moloney


Gold Coast University Hospital

If you would like to send a named referral, please address it to the specialist listed above, who will allocate a suitably qualified specialist to see the patient. Alternatively, you can view a full list of our specialists.

Child Safety

If you have a reason to suspect a child in Queensland is experiencing harm, or is at risk of experiencing harm, contact Department of Children, Youth Justice and Multicultural Services . Please consider if mandatory reporting applies.

Gold Coast Health - For Clinicians
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